India signed the Logistics Memorandum of Understanding with the United States in August 2016 after decades of negotiations. Since then, it has concluded several such agreements with France, Oman, the Philippines and Singapore and has had access to the port of Sabang, Indonesia. In a joint statement issued at the end of a bilateral summit between Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and his Japanese counterpart Shinzo Abe in Tokyo, India and Japan agreed to begin formal negotiations for a Cross-Service And Acquisition Agreement (ACSA) that would allow the Indian Army and the Japan Defense Defense Force (JSDF), use the other`s bases for logistical support. The two countries signed a Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA) in 2011 to foster the growth of bilateral trade. This has been described as the most comprehensive agreement of all the agreements concluded by India, covering trade in goods and services, passenger transport, investment, intellectual property rights, customs procedures and other trade-related issues. The ARLS is expected to be signed with Russia during the meeting between Prime Minister Narendra Modi and President Vladimir Putin in September on the sidelines of the Eastern Economic Forum in Vladivostok, Russia. Last month, a delegation led by Additional Secretary Jiwesh Nandan visited Russia to conclude the deal, the Defense Ministry said in its monthly report. Moscow had sent a draft agreement early last year and the Defense Ministry sent it in July to the Integrated Defense Staff and the three services for advice. It is remarkable to note that progress has been made in promoting closer bilateral military relations, but once again, the two countries have not been able to reach an agreement on the purchase of 12 Japan-made Shinmaywa US-2i amphibious maritime research and surveillance aircraft for the Indian Navy. India and Japan have been discussing a possible aircraft deal for five years.
CASA was discussed at the annual India-Japan Defence Ministers` Dialogue held in New Delhi in August, and representatives of the two countries agreed that an early conclusion of the agreement was in New Delhi`s interest and in Tokyo`s interest. The ASCA was also on the agenda of a meeting of Indian National Security Advisor Ajit Doval with his Japanese counterpart Shotaro Yachi earlier this month in New Delhi. India is working to conclude three Military Logistics Support Agreements (MLSAs) by the end of the year, which will further improve the military`s operational reach in the region. India has already signed such agreements with some countries, starting with the United States. The Navy has been the biggest beneficiary. Defense officials said the pact was long overdue, given the deep defense and strategic cooperation between the two countries. The Russian deal gives India access to its facilities in the Arctic region, which is seeing increased global activity due to the opening of new shipping routes and the availability of resources, a third official said. The Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreement (ACSA) is negotiated on a bilateral basis between the United States and its NATO allies or coalition partners, which allow U.S. forces to exchange the most common types of support, including food, fuel, transportation, ammunition, and equipment. The agreement in no way obliges a country to act militarily. The ESAs also exist between third countries.
Japan and South Korea have both formed ACSA with countries other than the United States.  New Delhi and Tokyo have formally agreed to open negotiations for a buyout and cross-services agreement. . . .